Kidney Stones: Natural cures
The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. About 80 percent of all stones are calcium oxalate stones. High blood calcium levels lead to hypercalciuria excessive absorption of calcium from the intestine which increases the level of calcium from the urine.
High blood calcium levels can also result from malfunctioning parathyroid, vitamins D intoxication and multiple myeloma. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite magnesium ammonium phosphate, and uric acid stones. However, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and 24-hour urine assessment provide information about stone forming factors that can guide prevention.
Medications, such as protease inhibitors, antibiotics, and some diuretics, increase the risk of some types of kidney stones, and patients should be counseled about the risks of using these medications (Dawson, at., al 2021).
The consumption of carbohydrates, especially sugar can help precipitate kidney stones as well because the sugar stimulates the pancreas to release insulin which in turn causes extra calcium to be excreted in the urine. Stone growth starts with the formation of crystals in supersaturated urine which then adhere to the urothelium, thus creating the nidus for subsequent stone growth. The single most important determinant of stone formation is low fluid intake. A low fluid intake results in the production of concentrated urine, causing supersaturation and crystallization of stone forming compounds. In addition, low urine flow rates crystal deposition on the urothelium (Han, H., Segal,at., al 2015).
Managing diet, medication use, and nutrient intake can help prevent the formation of kidney stones. Obesity increases the risk of kidney stones. However, weight loss could undermine prevention of kidney stones if associated with a high animal protein intake, laxative abuse, rapid loss of lean tissue, or poor hydration. For prevention of calcium oxalate, cystine, and uric acid stones, urine should be alkalinized by eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, taking supplemental or prescription citrate, or drinking alkaline mineral waters. For prevention of calcium phosphate and struvite stones, urine should be acidified; cranberry juice or betaine can lower urine pH. Antispasmodic medications, ureteroscopy, and metabolic testing are increasingly being used to augment fluid and pain medications in the acute management of kidney stones.
Dawson, C. H., & Tomson, C. R. (2012). Kidney stone disease: pathophysiology, investigation and medical treatment. Clinical medicine (London, England), 12(5), 467–471. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.12-5-467
Han, H., Segal, A. M., Seifter, J. L., & Dwyer, J. T. (2015). Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis). Clinical nutrition research, 4(3), 137–152. https://doi.org/10.7762/cnr.2015.4.3.137